Vale SA is engaged in the production and export of iron ore, pellets, manganese, and ferro-alloys, which are raw materials needed for steelmaking. It operates through the following segments: Bulk Materials, Base Metals, Fertilizers, Logistical Services, and Others. The Bulk Materials segment includes the extraction of iron ore and the production of pellets, manganese ore, ferro alloys, and coal. The Base Metals segment involves the production of non-ferrous minerals, which include nickel, copper, and aluminum. The Fertilizers segment is comprised of three major groups of nutrients: potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen. The Logistical Services segment provides in the transportation of cargo for third parties. This segment is split into the rail transport, port, and shipping services divisions. The Others segment encompasses joint ventures and affiliates of other businesses. The company was founded on June 1, 1942 and is headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.